Assertion

The WDIO testrunner comes with a built in assertion library that allows you to make powerful assertions on various aspects of the browser or elements within your (web) application. It extends Jests Matchers functionality with additional, for e2e testing optimized, matchers, e.g.:

const $button = $('button')
expect($button).toBeDisplayed()
const $button = await $('button')
await expect($button).toBeDisplayed()

or

const selectOptions = $$('form select>option')
// make sure there is at least one option in select
expect(selectOptions).toHaveChildren({ gte: 1 })
const selectOptions = await $$('form select>option')
// make sure there is at least one option in select
await expect(selectOptions).toHaveChildren({ gte: 1 })

For the full list, see the expect API doc.

Migrating from Chai#

Chai and expect-webdriverio can coexist, and with some minor adjustments a smooth transition to expect-webdriverio can be achieved. If you've upgraded to wdio v6 then by default you will have access to all the assertions from expect-webdriverio out of the box. This means that globally wherever you use expect you would call an expect-webdriverio assertion. That is, unless you have explicitly overridden the global expect to use Chai. In this case you would not have access to any of the expect-webdriverio assertions without explicitly importing the expect-webdriverio package where you need it.

This guide will show examples of how to migrate from Chai if it has been overridden locally and how to migrate from Chai if it has been overridden globally.

Local#

Assume Chai was imported explicitly in a file, e.g.:

// myfile.js - original code
const expectChai = require('chai').expect;
describe('Homepage', () => {
it('should assert', () => {
browser.url('./');
expectChai(browser.getUrl()).to.include('/login');
});
});

To migrate this code remove the Chai import and use the new expect-webdriverio assertion method toHaveUrl instead:

// myfile.js - migrated code
describe('Homepage', () => {
it('should assert', () => {
browser.url('./');
expect(browser).toHaveUrl('/login'); // new expect-webdriverio API method https://webdriver.io/docs/api/expect-webdriverio.html#tohaveurl
});
});

If you wanted to use both Chai and expect-webdriverio in the same file you would keep the Chai import and expect would default to the expect-webdriverio assertion, e.g.:

// myfile.js
const expectChai = require('chai').expect;
describe('Element', () => {
it('should be displayed', () => {
const isDisplayed = browser.$("#element").isDisplayed()
expectChai(isDisplayed).to.equal(true); // Chai assertion
});
});
describe('Other element', () => {
it('should not be displayed', () => {
expect(browser.$("#element")).not.toBeDisplayed(); // expect-webdriverio assertion
});
});

Global#

Assume expect was globally overridden to use Chai. In order to use expect-webdriverio assertions we need to globally set a variable in the "before" hook, e.g.:

// wdio.conf.js
before: () => {
require('expect-webdriverio');
global.wdioExpect = global.expect;
const chai = require('chai');
global.expect = chai.expect;
}

Now Chai and expect-webdriverio can be used alongside each other. In your code you would use Chai and expect-webdriverio assertions as follows, e.g.:

// myfile.js
describe('Element', () => {
it('should be displayed', () => {
const isDisplayed = browser.$("#element").isDisplayed()
expect(isDisplayed).to.equal(true); // Chai assertion
});
});
describe('Other element', () => {
it('should not be displayed', () => {
expectWdio(browser.$("#element")).not.toBeDisplayed(); // expect-webdriverio assertion
});
});

To migrate you would slowly move each Chai assertion over to expect-webdriverio. Once all Chai assertions have been replaced throughout the code base the "before" hook can be deleted. A global find and replace to replace all instances of wdioExpect to expect will then finish off the migration.