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Sync vs. Async Mode

caution

As of 14/04/2021 sync mode will not be supported anymore starting from Node.js v16 due to changes in Chromium. If you start a project with WebdriverIO we recommend to not use sync mode anymore. The community is working on a transition plan, read more on that in this RFC.

WebdriverIO runs a set of asynchronous commands to interact with the browser or mobile device. In JavaScript asynchronous operations are handled via async/await. This however can be a confusing concept for people unfamiliar with the language. In addition to that it can make tests very verbose as almost every operation is asynchronous. To simplify its usage WebdriverIO provides the ability to run commands synchronous through node-fibers.

How to enable/disable sync mode#

To enable sync mode you only need to add the @wdio/sync package to your dev dependencies:

npm install --save-dev @wdio/cli

The package will be automatically detected by the framework and the environment properly set up to run synchronous.

Sync mode#

If you're using @wdio/sync then you can avoid awaiting for command calls. It is still required to deal with Promises from 3rd-party libraries, you should use browser.call for this to wrap them and make them synchronous too.

// 3rd-party library example
// https://www.npmjs.com/package/got#gotgeturl-options
const { get } = require('got')
describe('suite sync', () => {
// make sure to remove `async` keyword otherwise function treated as async
// and you have to await every browser call.
// The same is applicable to hooks in `wdio.conf.js` as well.
it('test sync', () => {
browser.pause(500)
// wrap 3rd-party library calls with `browser.call`
const response = browser.call(
() => get('https://cat-fact.herokuapp.com/facts/', {
responseType: 'json'
})
)
console.log(response.body[0].type) // outputs: "cat"
$('body').click() // You can chain functions in sync mode
})
// If you have `@wdio/sync` installed and configured, it is still possible to use async functions.
// However, in such case you have to await every browser/element call like in async mode, and this can
// be confusing when other tests are sync, so we discourage mixing modes, but it is possible to do so.
// The best practice in sync mode is to wrap anything async with `browser.call`.
it('using async function in sync mode', async () => {
await browser.pause(500)
const response = await get('https://cat-fact.herokuapp.com/facts/')
console.log(response.body[0].type) // outputs: "cat"
const el = await $('body')
await el.click()
})
})

Common issues in sync mode#

  • fibers failed to install properly. The package usually comes with pre-built binaries but if your environment doesn't support it these need to be compiled which require node-gyp and Python.

Async Mode#

If you decide to run in async mode all WebdriverIO commands return a Promise and need to be awaited to get the result, e.g.:

describe('suite async', () => {
it('test', async () => { // pay attention to `async` keyword
const el = await $('body') // note `await` keyword
await el.click()
await browser.pause(500)
console.log(browser.capabilities) // static properties should not be awaited
// this WON'T WORK! You can't chain functions like this.
await $('body').click()
// instead you need to:
await (await $('body')).click()
})
})

Common issues in async mode#

There can be quite some confusion when handling asynchronous commands manually. The usual problems are:

  • chaining of element commands:

    await $('body').click()` // throws `$(...).click is not a function`

    You can't chain element calls as you have to await multiple asynchronous functions. To fix this, first await element then trigger the click, like so:

    const el = await $('body')
    await el.click()
  • previous command was not awaited:

    const el = await $('body')
    el.waitForExist() // ERROR: await is missing here, you'll get `Unhandled promise rejection`.
    await el.click()